ExperTeach Networking Logo

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Networks, Alarms, Protection

ExperTeach Networking Logo
SDH has belonged to the main transmission technologies for many years now. It is characterized by excellent network protection and high-performance network management. The course topics comprise planning, operation, coupling, and protection of SDH networks, as well as Ethernet and IP over SDH. Next Generation SDH opens up completely new dimensions for network operators and their customers. Participants will acquire a profound and practice-related knowledge which is imperative for the management of SDH networks and permits a deeper understanding of optical transport networks.

Course Contents

  • Setup of the Transport Modules
  • Tasks of the Overhead and of the Pointers
  • Setup and Application of the Network Elements
  • Internetworking
  • Clock Generation in SDH Networks
  • Network Protection Concepts
  • Network Management
  • Measuring Technologies
  • Implementation of Leased Line Connections
  • SDH in Interaction with ATM, IP, and DWDM
  • Packet over SONET/SDH (POS)
  • SDH Next Generation: Virtual Concatenation and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme

Print E-Book PDF Symbol You will receive the comprehensive documentation package of the ExperTeach Networking series – printed documentation, e-book, and personalized PDF! As online participant, you will receive the e-book and the personalized PDF.

Target Group

The course is customized for employees of network operators, vendors, ISPs, and large-scale customers. Moreover, it is designed for employees of companies which use site interconnections or long-distance traffic connections with high bit rates.

Knowledge Prerequisites

The course requires no special know-how. Interest in the topic and the active participation in the discussion ensure an optimum learning success.
1 Digitale Übertragungstechnologien
1.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy –Technik mit Schwankungen
1.1.1 Übertragungsraten der PDH
1.1.2 2 Mbit/s – strukturiert oder transparent?
1.1.3 Multiplexbildung – Bitte ein Bit
1.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy – einfach und genial
1.2.1 Übertragungsraten der SDH
1.2.2 Warum SDH? – PDH und SDH im Vergleich
1.2.3 SDH-Netze im Überblick
1.2.4 Wichtige Standards im SDH-Umfeld
1.3 Synchronous Optical Network – die amerikanische SDH Variante
2 Grundlagen der SDH
2.1 Basisrate – Das STM-1
2.1.1 Der Overhead des STM-1
2.2 SDH-Begriffswelt
2.2.1 SDH/SONET-Multiplexbildung
2.2.2 Vom VC-4 zum STM-1
2.2.3 Container und virtuelle Container
2.2.4 Tributary Unit und Tributary Unit Groups
2.2.5 Administrative Units
2.2.6 Administrative Unit Group (SONET)
2.2.7 Bildung eines Higher Order Container
2.3 Höchste Bitraten – Von STM-4 zum STM-256
2.3.1 Multiplexen eines STM-4
2.3.2 Die Verkettung – STM-4c
3 SDH in der Praxis
3.1 Realisierung verschiedener Festverbindungen
3.1.1 Mapping von E4 in VC-4
3.1.2 Mapping von E3 in VC-3
3.1.3 Mapping von E1 in VC-12
3.2 ATM über SDH
3.2.1 Einblick in ATM
3.2.2 Come together – ATM über SDH
3.2.3 Mapping von ATM-Zellen
3.3 Ethernet über SDH (EoS)
3.3.1 Ethernet über HDLC auf SDH
3.3.2 Mapping mittels Generic Frame Procedure (GFP)
3.3.3 Virtuelle Verkettung für Ethernet
3.3.4 Dynamische Bandbreitenvergabe mit LCAS
3.4 IP über SDH – Packet over SONET
3.4.1 Einblick in die IP-Welt
3.4.2 Mapping von IP-Paketen
3.5 WDM – Um Wellenlängen voraus
3.5.1 Vorteile von WDM
3.5.2 SDH und WDM
3.6 Overhead – Basis der Netzüberwachung
3.6.1 Section Overhead – Bytes und Bedeutung
3.6.2 Path Overhead – Aufgaben und Funktion
4 SDH-Technik
4.1 Pointer – Synchronisation der Nutzlast
4.1.1 Aufbau eines Pointers
4.1.2 Aufgaben des Pointers
4.1.3 Pointeränderungen
4.1.4 AU-Pointer
4.1.5 TU-Pointer
4.2 Funktionsweise und Einsatz der Netzelemente
4.2.1 Funktionsblöcke in SDH-Geräten
4.2.2 Terminal-Multiplexer
4.2.3 Add-/Drop-Multiplexer
4.2.4 Cross-Connect-Systeme
4.2.5 Ausblick: Optische Netzelemente
4.3 Messtechnik statt Zauberei
4.3.1 Transport-Test
4.3.2 Jitter Tests
4.3.3 Pointer-Tests
5 Design und Management von SDH-Netzen
5.1 Netzwerkdesign
5.1.1 Das SDH-Netzmodell
5.1.2 Ringe oder Vermaschung
5.2 Taktung – Wem die Stunde schlägt
5.2.1 Taktquellen – es kann nur einen geben
5.2.2 Regeln zur Taktvergabe
5.2.3 Konfigurationsbeispiele
5.3 Netzschutz – Selbstheilende Ringe
5.3.1 Überblick der Netzschutzmechanismen
5.3.2 Uni- und bidirektionale Ringe
5.3.3 Path Protection
5.3.4 Line Protection
5.3.5 MS Shared Protection Rings
5.3.6 Kopplung von Ringen
5.3.7 Ausfall eines Knotens
5.4 Netzwerkmanagement
5.4.1 Das SDH-Informationsmodell
5.4.2 Überwachungsfunktionen
5.4.3 Alarme und Fehlerquellen
6 Übungen zur Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
6.1 STM-1 in der Anwendung
6.2 Beispiele zu Netzplanung und -betrieb
6.3 Ethernet und SDH
6.4 Streckenüberwachung und Leitungsqualität
6.5 Netzschutz in Ringen
6.5.1 Line und Path Protection
6.5.2 MS Shared Protection Rings
6.5.3 Ausfall eines Cross-Connects
A Standards der CCITT/ITU-T

Classroom training

Do you prefer the classic training method? A course in one of our Training Centers, with a competent trainer and the direct exchange between all course participants? Then you should book one of our classroom training dates!

Hybrid training

Hybrid training means that online participants can additionally attend a classroom course. The dynamics of a real seminar are maintained, and the online participants are able to benefit from that. Online participants of a hybrid course use a collaboration platform, such as WebEx Training Center or Saba Meeting. To do this, a PC with browser and Internet access is required, as well as a headset and ideally a Web cam. In the seminar room, we use specially developed and customized audio- and video-technologies. This makes sure that the communication between all persons involved works in a convenient and fault-free way.

Online training

You wish to attend a course in online mode? We offer you online course dates for this course topic. To attend these seminars, you need to have a PC with Internet access (minimum data rate 1Mbps), a headset when working via VoIP and optionally a camera. For further information and technical recommendations, please refer to.

Tailor-made courses

You need a special course for your team? In addition to our standard offer, we will also support you in creating your customized courses, which precisely meet your individual demands. We will be glad to consult you and create an individual offer for you.
Request for customized courses
PDF SymbolYou can find the complete description of this course with dates and prices ready for download at as PDF.

SDH has belonged to the main transmission technologies for many years now. It is characterized by excellent network protection and high-performance network management. The course topics comprise planning, operation, coupling, and protection of SDH networks, as well as Ethernet and IP over SDH. Next Generation SDH opens up completely new dimensions for network operators and their customers. Participants will acquire a profound and practice-related knowledge which is imperative for the management of SDH networks and permits a deeper understanding of optical transport networks.

Course Contents

  • Setup of the Transport Modules
  • Tasks of the Overhead and of the Pointers
  • Setup and Application of the Network Elements
  • Internetworking
  • Clock Generation in SDH Networks
  • Network Protection Concepts
  • Network Management
  • Measuring Technologies
  • Implementation of Leased Line Connections
  • SDH in Interaction with ATM, IP, and DWDM
  • Packet over SONET/SDH (POS)
  • SDH Next Generation: Virtual Concatenation and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme

Print E-Book PDF Symbol You will receive the comprehensive documentation package of the ExperTeach Networking series – printed documentation, e-book, and personalized PDF! As online participant, you will receive the e-book and the personalized PDF.

Target Group

The course is customized for employees of network operators, vendors, ISPs, and large-scale customers. Moreover, it is designed for employees of companies which use site interconnections or long-distance traffic connections with high bit rates.

Knowledge Prerequisites

The course requires no special know-how. Interest in the topic and the active participation in the discussion ensure an optimum learning success.

1 Digitale Übertragungstechnologien
1.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy –Technik mit Schwankungen
1.1.1 Übertragungsraten der PDH
1.1.2 2 Mbit/s – strukturiert oder transparent?
1.1.3 Multiplexbildung – Bitte ein Bit
1.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy – einfach und genial
1.2.1 Übertragungsraten der SDH
1.2.2 Warum SDH? – PDH und SDH im Vergleich
1.2.3 SDH-Netze im Überblick
1.2.4 Wichtige Standards im SDH-Umfeld
1.3 Synchronous Optical Network – die amerikanische SDH Variante
2 Grundlagen der SDH
2.1 Basisrate – Das STM-1
2.1.1 Der Overhead des STM-1
2.2 SDH-Begriffswelt
2.2.1 SDH/SONET-Multiplexbildung
2.2.2 Vom VC-4 zum STM-1
2.2.3 Container und virtuelle Container
2.2.4 Tributary Unit und Tributary Unit Groups
2.2.5 Administrative Units
2.2.6 Administrative Unit Group (SONET)
2.2.7 Bildung eines Higher Order Container
2.3 Höchste Bitraten – Von STM-4 zum STM-256
2.3.1 Multiplexen eines STM-4
2.3.2 Die Verkettung – STM-4c
3 SDH in der Praxis
3.1 Realisierung verschiedener Festverbindungen
3.1.1 Mapping von E4 in VC-4
3.1.2 Mapping von E3 in VC-3
3.1.3 Mapping von E1 in VC-12
3.2 ATM über SDH
3.2.1 Einblick in ATM
3.2.2 Come together – ATM über SDH
3.2.3 Mapping von ATM-Zellen
3.3 Ethernet über SDH (EoS)
3.3.1 Ethernet über HDLC auf SDH
3.3.2 Mapping mittels Generic Frame Procedure (GFP)
3.3.3 Virtuelle Verkettung für Ethernet
3.3.4 Dynamische Bandbreitenvergabe mit LCAS
3.4 IP über SDH – Packet over SONET
3.4.1 Einblick in die IP-Welt
3.4.2 Mapping von IP-Paketen
3.5 WDM – Um Wellenlängen voraus
3.5.1 Vorteile von WDM
3.5.2 SDH und WDM
3.6 Overhead – Basis der Netzüberwachung
3.6.1 Section Overhead – Bytes und Bedeutung
3.6.2 Path Overhead – Aufgaben und Funktion
4 SDH-Technik
4.1 Pointer – Synchronisation der Nutzlast
4.1.1 Aufbau eines Pointers
4.1.2 Aufgaben des Pointers
4.1.3 Pointeränderungen
4.1.4 AU-Pointer
4.1.5 TU-Pointer
4.2 Funktionsweise und Einsatz der Netzelemente
4.2.1 Funktionsblöcke in SDH-Geräten
4.2.2 Terminal-Multiplexer
4.2.3 Add-/Drop-Multiplexer
4.2.4 Cross-Connect-Systeme
4.2.5 Ausblick: Optische Netzelemente
4.3 Messtechnik statt Zauberei
4.3.1 Transport-Test
4.3.2 Jitter Tests
4.3.3 Pointer-Tests
5 Design und Management von SDH-Netzen
5.1 Netzwerkdesign
5.1.1 Das SDH-Netzmodell
5.1.2 Ringe oder Vermaschung
5.2 Taktung – Wem die Stunde schlägt
5.2.1 Taktquellen – es kann nur einen geben
5.2.2 Regeln zur Taktvergabe
5.2.3 Konfigurationsbeispiele
5.3 Netzschutz – Selbstheilende Ringe
5.3.1 Überblick der Netzschutzmechanismen
5.3.2 Uni- und bidirektionale Ringe
5.3.3 Path Protection
5.3.4 Line Protection
5.3.5 MS Shared Protection Rings
5.3.6 Kopplung von Ringen
5.3.7 Ausfall eines Knotens
5.4 Netzwerkmanagement
5.4.1 Das SDH-Informationsmodell
5.4.2 Überwachungsfunktionen
5.4.3 Alarme und Fehlerquellen
6 Übungen zur Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
6.1 STM-1 in der Anwendung
6.2 Beispiele zu Netzplanung und -betrieb
6.3 Ethernet und SDH
6.4 Streckenüberwachung und Leitungsqualität
6.5 Netzschutz in Ringen
6.5.1 Line und Path Protection
6.5.2 MS Shared Protection Rings
6.5.3 Ausfall eines Cross-Connects
A Standards der CCITT/ITU-T

Classroom training

Do you prefer the classic training method? A course in one of our Training Centers, with a competent trainer and the direct exchange between all course participants? Then you should book one of our classroom training dates!

Hybrid training

Hybrid training means that online participants can additionally attend a classroom course. The dynamics of a real seminar are maintained, and the online participants are able to benefit from that. Online participants of a hybrid course use a collaboration platform, such as WebEx Training Center or Saba Meeting. To do this, a PC with browser and Internet access is required, as well as a headset and ideally a Web cam. In the seminar room, we use specially developed and customized audio- and video-technologies. This makes sure that the communication between all persons involved works in a convenient and fault-free way.

Online training

You wish to attend a course in online mode? We offer you online course dates for this course topic. To attend these seminars, you need to have a PC with Internet access (minimum data rate 1Mbps), a headset when working via VoIP and optionally a camera. For further information and technical recommendations, please refer to.

Tailor-made courses

You need a special course for your team? In addition to our standard offer, we will also support you in creating your customized courses, which precisely meet your individual demands. We will be glad to consult you and create an individual offer for you.
Request for customized courses

PDF SymbolYou can find the complete description of this course with dates and prices ready for download at as PDF.